Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz is better known for her poetry and one celebrated prose work than for her dramatic output. Though Sor Juana wrote more than four hundred poems—including sonnets, romances (eight-syllable lines with assonance in even lines), redondillas (four eight-syllable line verses with an abba rhyme pattern), décimas (ten eight-syllable line verses rhymed abba-ac-cddc), and villancicos (church carols)—her fame rests on a relatively small number of poems; she is probably best known for her sonnets. Although her poems are Baroque in style, many of them are beautifully lyric and clear; they frequently treat the subjects of love and disillusionment.
Primero Sueño (first dream), her long poem of almost one thousand lines, is in imitation of Luis de Góngora y Argote’s Soledad primera (1613; First Solitude, 1964). In this dream narrative, her soul ascends to heavenly exaltation, but then descends to devote itself to scholarly pursuits and methodical knowledge. It has been described by the critic Francisco López Camara as “a hymn to the awakening of the spirit of investigation or research, and an unsuspected forerunner of the poetry of the eighteenth century Enlightenment.”
Her most famous prose work, Respuesta de la poetisa a la muy ilustre Sor Filotea de la Cruz (1700; reply of the poetess to the illustrious Sister Filotea de la Cruz), written March 1, 1691, is invaluable for the light it throws on Sor Juana’s life. In 1690, she had written a criticism of a sermon by the famous Portuguese Jesuit priest Antonio de Vieyra. The Bishop of Puebla was so impressed by it that he had it printed and then wrote her praising the work but suggesting that she limit herself to theological discussions and avoid secular matters; he signed the letter “Sor Filotea de la Cruz.” Sor Juana’s lengthy prose reply provides a wealth of biographical information concerning her material existence as well as her mentally tortured life.
"Redondillas", or "You Foolish Men," is a seventeenth century critique of patriarchy, the tenets of society which cause men to blame women for things men themselves are the cause of. The poet complains that men "invite the disdain" of women with their behavior, but then complain when women do not behave sweetly towards them. The behavior of men, the poet says, is childish: "you act just like a child / who plays the bogeyman /...
"Redondillas", or "You Foolish Men," is a seventeenth century critique of patriarchy, the tenets of society which cause men to blame women for things men themselves are the cause of. The poet complains that men "invite the disdain" of women with their behavior, but then complain when women do not behave sweetly towards them. The behavior of men, the poet says, is childish: "you act just like a child / who plays the bogeyman / of whom he's then afraid." The poem highlights a simple double standard, wherein men provoke a particular response in women through their behavior, but then go on to criticize the woman for responding in a reasonable way.
The particular double standard of men's expectations for women's sexual behaviour is highlighted in the comment that "you wish to find a Thais in her you court, but a Lucretia when you have possessed her." Men, the poet complains, wish to court a virgin but then bed a more promiscuous woman. It is not possible for one woman to be both, and yet this is what men seem to expect.
Men's expectations are compared to those of a man who "mists a mirror and then complains when it is not clear". That is, they seem to expect the impossible, or that their actions should have no consequences.
Modest women, the poet complains, are deemed ungrateful, but any woman who does respond to compliments is then "loose."
In their "promise and insistence," the poet says, men "join world, flesh and devil"—everything men do in their wooing of women defies logic, and yet it is women who are declared irrational.