Hypophosphoric Acid Synthesis Essay

Sulfuric acid is sometimes referred to as the “king of chemicals” because it is produced worldwide in such large quantities. In fact, per capita use of sulfuric acid has been taken as one index of the technical development of a country. Annual production in the United States, which is the world’s leading producer, is well over 39 billion kg (86 billion pounds). It is the cheapest bulk acid.

Preparation

Most sulfuric acid is produced by the modern contact process. First, elemental sulfur or sulfideores are heated with oxygen to produce sulfur dioxide (SO2). About 60 percent of the sulfur dioxide produced throughout the world comes from burning sulfur, and approximately 40 percent is derived from roasting sulfide minerals. (Roasting is the process by which ores are oxidized by heating in air.) Sulfur dioxide is then oxidized to sulfur trioxide, SO3. This oxidation reaction is exothermic (i.e., releases energy in the form of heat) and reversible. Accordingly, a vanadiumoxidecatalyst is used on an inert support to increase the rate of the oxidation without decreasing the yield. Under optimum conditions, the feed gas consists of equimolar quantities of oxygen and sulfur dioxide (i.e., a 5:1 ratio of air to sulfur dioxide) that passes through a four-stage catalytic converter operating at various temperatures. After the gas mixture has passed over three of the catalyst beds and approximately 93 percent conversion to sulfur trioxide has occurred, it is cooled and absorbed into sulfuric acid in ceramic-packed towers. A final conversion of greater than 99 percent is achieved after passage through the final reaction bed. All three reactions used to produce sulfuric acid, as shown below, are exothermic. Efficient utilization of this energy to generate electricity, for example, is a key component in maintaining the inexpensive price of this heavily used acid. S + O2 → SO2
2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
SO3 + H2O (in 98% H2SO4) → H2SO4

Pure sulfuric acid is a colourless, oily, dense (1.83 grams per cc) liquid that freezes at 10.5 °C (50.9 °F). It fumes when heated because of its decomposition to water and sulfur trioxide. Because SO3 has a lower boiling point than water, more SO3 is lost during heating. When a concentration of 98.33 percent acid is reached, the solution boils at 338 °C without any further change in concentration. This is called a constant boiling solution, and it is this concentration that is sold as concentrated sulfuric acid. Anhydrous sulfuric acid mixes with water in all proportions in a very exothermic reaction. Adding water to concentrated acid can cause explosive spattering. Because it reacts with organic compounds in the skin, concentrated sulfuric acid can cause severe burns. Thus, to decrease the risk of injury in the laboratory, sulfuric acid should always be added to water slowly and with stirring to distribute the heat.

Citation data is made available by participants in Crossref's Cited-by Linking service. For a more comprehensive list of citations to this article, users are encouraged to perform a search inSciFinder.

  • Phosphinate Chemistry in the 21st Century: A Viable Alternative to the Use of Phosphorus Trichloride in Organophosphorus Synthesis.

    Jean-LucMontchamp

    Accounts of Chemical Research201447 (1), 77-87

    Abstract | Full Text HTML | PDF | PDF w/ Links

  • Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution with (η6-Arene–CH2Z)Cr(CO)3-Based Nucleophiles

    JiadiZhangCorneliuStanciuBeibeiWangMahmud M.HussainChao-ShanDaPatrick J.CarrollSpencer D.DreherPatrick J.Walsh

    Journal of the American Chemical Society2011133 (50), 20552-20560

    Abstract | Full Text HTML | PDF | PDF w/ Links

  • Palladium-Catalyzed Propargylic Substitution with Phosphorus Nucleophiles: Efficient, Stereoselective Synthesis of Allenylphosphonates and Related Compounds

    MarcinKalekTommyJohanssonMartinaJezowskaJacekStawinski

    Organic Letters201012 (20), 4702-4704

    Abstract | Full Text HTML | PDF | PDF w/ Links

  • Allylic Phosphinates via Palladium-Catalyzed Allylation of H-Phosphinic Acids with Allylic Alcohols

    LaëtitiaCoudray,KarlaBravo-Altamirano, andJean-LucMontchamp

    Organic Letters200810 (6), 1123-1126

    Abstract | Full Text HTML | PDF | PDF w/ Links

  • Palladium-Catalyzed Reactions of Hypophosphorous Compounds with Allenes, Dienes, and Allylic Electrophiles:  Methodology for the Synthesis of Allylic H-Phosphinates

    KarlaBravo-Altamirano,IsabelleAbrunhosa-Thomas, andJean-LucMontchamp

    The Journal of Organic Chemistry200873 (6), 2292-2301

    Abstract | Full Text HTML | PDF | PDF w/ Links

  • Acidity and Tautomerization of P–H Group

    Kolio D.Troev

    2018,1-17

  • Reactivity of P–H Group of H-Phosphinic Acid and Its Derivatives

    Kolio D.Troev

    2018,245-290

  • Featuring Xantphos

    Piet W. N. M.van LeeuwenPaul C. J.Kamer

    Catalysis Science & Technology20188 (1), 26-113

  • Palladium-catalyzed Benzylic Substitution of Benzyl Carbonates with Phosphorus Nucleophiles

    YusukeMakidaKazumiUsuiSatoshiUenoRyoichiKuwano

    Chemistry Letters201746 (12), 1814-1817

  • Palladium-Catalyzed Allylation/Benzylation of H-Phosphinate Esters with Alcohols

    AnthonyFers-LidouOlivierBergerJean-LucMontchamp

    Molecules201621 (12), 1295

  • Hypophosphorous Acid and Its Salts as Reagents in Organophosphorus Chemistry

    AureliaVisaBiancaMaranescuGheorgheIlia

    2016,137-168

  • General synthesis of P-stereogenic compounds: the menthyl phosphinate approach

    OlivierBergerJean-LucMontchamp

    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry201614 (31), 7552-7562

  • Copper-catalyzed allylic C–H phosphonation

    BinYangHong-YuZhangShang-DongYang

    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry201513 (12), 3561-3565

  • Catalytic Allylation of Hypophosphorous Acid and H -Phosphinic Acids with Primary Allylic Amines

    Xue-SongWuMeng-GuangZhouYanChenShi-KaiTian

    Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry20143 (6), 711-714

  • Hypophosphorous Acid

    Vladimir V.PopikAndrew G.WrightTanweer A.KhanJohn A.MurphyFabienGelatJean-LucMontchamp

    2014,1-11

  • A General Strategy for the Synthesis of P-Stereogenic Compounds

    OlivierBergerJean-LucMontchamp

    Angewandte Chemie International Edition2013, n/a-n/a

  • A General Strategy for the Synthesis of P-Stereogenic Compounds

    OlivierBergerJean-LucMontchamp

    Angewandte Chemie2013, n/a-n/a

  • One-Pot Halogen-Free Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl-phosphinic Acid from 1H-indene and Elemental Phosphorus via the Trofimov-Gusarova Reaction

    Alexander V.Artem'evSvetlana F.MalyshevaAnastasiya O.KorochevaIrina Yu.Bagryanskaya

    Heteroatom Chemistry201223 (6), 568-573

  • ORGANOPHOSPHORUS SYNTHESIS WITHOUT PHOSPHORUS TRICHLORIDE: THE CASE FOR THE HYPOPHOSPHOROUS PATHWAY

    Jean-LucMontchamp

    Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements2012, 120917123830004

  • Synthesis of [2-(methoxyaryl)-1-methylethyl]phosphinic acids from red phosphorus and (allyl)(methoxy)benzenes

    S. F.MalyshevaV. A.KuimovA. V.Artem’evN. A.BelogorlovaA. I.AlbanovN. K.GusarovaB. A.Trofimov

    Russian Chemical Bulletin201261

  • 0 comments

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *