Animal Farm George Orwell
See also 1984 Criticism and George Orwell Criticism.
(Pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair) English novelist, essayist, critic, journalist, and memoirist.
The following entry presents criticism of Orwell’s short novel Animal Farm, which was published in 1945.
Animal Farm (1945) is considered one of Orwell's most popular and enduring works. Utilizing the form of the animal fable, the short novel chronicles the story of a group of barnyard animals that revolt against their human masters in an attempt to create a utopian state. On a larger scale, commentators widely view Animal Farm as an allegory for the rise and decline of socialism in the Soviet Union and the emergence of the totalitarian regime of Joseph Stalin. Critics regard the story as an insightful and relevant exploration of human nature as well as political systems and social behavior. After its translation into Russian, it was banned by Stalin's government in all Soviet-ruled areas.
Plot and Major Characters
The story opens as the barnyard animals of Manor Farm discuss a revolution against their master, the tyrannical and drunken farmer Mr. Jones. Old Major, an aging boar, gives a rousing speech in the barn urging his fellow animals to get rid of Jones and rely on their own efforts to keep the farm running and profitable. Identified as the smartest animals in the group, the pigs—led by the idealistic Snowball and the ruthless Napoleon—successfully plan and lead the revolution. After Jones and his wife are forced from the farm, the animals look forward to a society where all animals are equal and live without the threat of oppression. But soon, the pigs begin to assume more power and adjust the rules to suit their own needs. They create and implement an ideological system, complete with jingoistic songs and propaganda as well as strict rules. Once partners and friends, Napoleon and Snowball disagree on several issues regarding the governing of the farm. Snowball's attempted coup is repelled by a pack of wild dogs—controlled by Napoleon—who also enforce punishment against the other animals when they oppose or question Napoleon's rule. Before long, the pigs separate themselves from the other animals on the farm and begin to indulge in excessive drinking and other decadent behavior. Under the protection of the dogs, they consolidate their iron-fisted rule and begin eliminating any animal they consider useless or a threat to their power. Animal Farm ends with the majority of the animals in the same position as in the beginning of the story: disenfranchised and oppressed under a corrupt and brutal governing system.
Critics note that like many classical animal fables, Animal Farm is an allegory—in this case, of the Russian Revolution and the rise of Stalin's tyrannical government. It is generally accepted that Orwell constructed his story to reflect this purpose: Manor Farm represents Russia; Mr. Jones is the tsar; the pigs represent the Bolsheviks, the bureaucratic power elite; Snowball is Leon Trotsky, who lost a power struggle with Stalin; Napoleon is Stalin; and Napoleon's dogs are Stalin's secret police, known as the GPU. The corruption of absolute power is a major theme in Animal Farm. As most of the animals hope to create a utopian system based on the equality of all animals, the pigs—through greed and ruthlessness—manipulate and intimidate the other animals into subservience. Critics note that Orwell was underlining a basic tenet of human nature: some will always exist who are more ambitious, ruthless, and willing to grab power than the rest of society and some within society will be willing to give up power for security and structure. In that sense Animal Farm is regarded as a cautionary tale, warning readers of the pitfalls of revolution.
Animal Farm is regarded as a successful blend of political satire and animal fable. Completed in 1944, the book remained unpublished for more than a year because British publishing firms declined to offend the country's Soviet allies. Finally the small leftist firm of Secker & Warburg printed it, and the short novel became a critical and popular triumph. It has been translated into many languages but was banned by Soviet authorities throughout the Soviet-controlled regions of the world because of its political content. As a result of the book's resounding commercial success, Orwell was freed from financial worries for the first time in his life. A few years after its publication, it attracted critical controversy because of its popularity amongst anticommunist factions in the United States; Orwell was alarmed that these forces were using his short novel as propaganda for their political views. In the subsequent years, Animal Farm has been interpreted from feminist, Marxist, political, and psychological perspectives, and it is perceived as an important and relevant book in the post-World War II literary canon. Moreover, it is considered one of Orwell's most lasting achievements.
Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay
1127 Words5 Pages
Animal Farm begins as a vision of Utopia, perfect society but ends as a nightmare who is to blame for the betrayal of revolution?
Animalism was, in its truest sense, a dream conjured by Old Major. He could never achieve his vision of Utopia. Throughout the satire, the pigs visibly taint Old Major's concept of equality. It is obvious to the readers from the very beginning, that the pigs would become corrupt. At the start of the satire, all the animals gather in the barn to listen to Old Major's dream, "everyone was quite ready to lose an hour's sleep in order to hear what he had to say". Old Major was a boar, and was "highly regarded" on the farm. This is the first character introduced; he is a pig and held a superior…show more content…
Napoleon and Snowball appeared to be united against Jones and his men after the rebellion, burning whips, clothing and serving a double ration of food, explaining the Seven Commandments to the animals. During the examination of Jones' home, all the animals agreed that no animal must ever live there, but this rule was eventually discarded.
Although Snowball seemed to be more honest than Napoleon, this did not exclude the fact that he was a pig, he ate the milk that "disappeared" at one point of the satire. This was the first valid indication of corruption. The pigs had luxuries like milk (according to another pig,
Squealer, they were the "Brain-workers" and deserved these luxuries).
The pigs did not do hard labour, unlike the other animals, but directed and supervised. If the pigs were intelligent and believed in
Animalism, they would have produced a timetable where few pigs could work and others could supervise. Snowball created a flag to represent
Animalism, and produced ceremonies for every Sunday. He showed his loyalty to the idea of Animalism, therefore did not appear as corrupt.
Meetings were held where work was "planned and resolutions were put forward and debated". Snowball and Napoleon were never in agreement, obviously their arguments would not end in peace. The sheep interrupted Snowballs' brilliant speeches by bleating,