This guide provides basic guidelines and examples for common citation styles used at Davidson College. When citing sources, always defer to the citation style required by your department or professor. You may need to consult thefull style manualor consult a librarian for complex citation questions.
Note: Throughout this guide you will find examples of how to cite online sources (ebooks, online journal articles, etc.). These rules are subject to change when citation styles are revised, so be sure to consult the most recent edition of a given citation manual.
(American Anthropological Association). Used exclusively in anthropology. Based on the Chicago Manual of Style.
(American Chemical Society) Specialized citation style used in chemistry.
(American Medical Association) Citation style used primarily in medical writing.
(American Psychological Association) Used primarily in psychology and sociology.
- Chicago: Notes & Bibliography
(Documentation I) Used primarily in the humanities, especially in history. The Turabian style is based on the most recent edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
- Chicago: Author-Date
(Documentation II) Used primarily in the social sciences, especially economics and political science. Refer to this section for citing in APSA style (American Political Science Association) because APSA is adapted from the Chicago Author-Date style.
(Council of Science Editors, formerly Council of Biology Editors) Used in various science disciplines, including physical and life sciences.
(Modern Language Association) Used primarily in English and the humanities.
Davidson College Archival Sources
Style Manuals & Guides
When teachers ask you to write in "Chicago Style", they are referring to the editorial style that most subjects within Arts and Humanities have adopted to present written material in the field.
Editorial style is a set of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as:
- punctuation and abbreviations
- construction of tables
- selection of headings
- citation of references
- presentation of statistics
- as well as many other elements that are a part of every manuscript
The purpose of documentation is to:
- Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.
- Indicate the authors or sources of these in a Bibliography at the end of your paper.
- Identify the sources you researched to support your argument.
- Provide all information necessary to enable your readers to find the sources you used.
The 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (2017) recognizes two basic styles of citation: Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date. Notes-Bibliography is the standard in the humanities; this guide is only for the Notes and Bibliography system.