Bibliography Math Paper Borders

Mathematics HTML Sampler

• Check Widely Supported HTML and Unicode Characters, to see whether the symbol you might need is there. If not, and it also can't be found on the page Special Symbols (Not Widely Supported), then we have to create new graphics. • All standalone letters used as symbols should be in italic. For italics, you can use either <em>…</em> or <i>…</i>. The former are preferred, but the latter are acceptable.

Mathematical symbols with subscripts or superscripts that are also letters can be formatted using either separate tags for each italicized letter or, if there are no intervening characters that shouldn't be italicized, using a global pair of <em>…</em> tags. So,


can be formatted as either



• Parenthesis should not be in italics:
x(FxGx), i.e., &forall;<em>x</em>(<em>Fx</em> &rarr; <em>Gx</em>),

but not

x(Fx → Gx), i.e., not &forall;<em>x(Fx &rarr; Gx)</em>

Quantifiers should not use dot notation:



• To stop a linebreak, place the material in the following environment:
<span class="nw"> </span>
• To produce numbered equations, use:
<dl class="hangindent">
<dt>(#)</dt><dd>equation</dd> </dl>

to produce


or if you don't want the numbers indented, use "hang" instead of "hangindent" to produce


Note that the dl "hang" class can also be used in bibliographies for primary sources organized by year or abbreviation.

• To produce Quine corner quotes, use:
<sup>&#8988;</sup>some text<sup>&#8989;</sup>
to produce:
some text
• To produce an overbar over an uppercase letter or letters, use:
<span class="oline">EQI</span>

to produce:


Note that this doesn't work as well with lower case letters: α.

• To produce a sans serif font, use
<span style="font-family: Arial">Cong</span>

to produce

• To produce small-caps, use:
<span class="sc">This is in small-caps</span>
to produce:
This is in small-caps.
• To use LaTeX-like script letters for upper-case, use
<span class="scriptuc">…</span>
to produce:
A, B, C, D, etc.

When the browser sees the HTML code, it will first try to call up the font cmsy10.ttf, if it is installed, and failing that it will call for Script MT, or any "cursive" font.

• To use underbars that are lower than underlines, use
<span class="ubar">…</span>
to produce:
A, a, B, b, etc.
• There are new span (and italic) classes, "overstrike", "up", and "hi", to put a mark above an arbitrary character. Here are some examples. Use
<span class="overstrike">v<span class="up">&circ;</span></span>
<span class="overstrike">ε<span class="up">&rsquo;</span></span>
to produce:
vˆ, ε’, etc.
For upper case characters, use
<span class="overstrike">U<span class="hi">&circ;</span></span>
<span class="overstrike">Γ<span class="hi">&rsquo;</span></span>

to produce:

Uˆ, Γ;’, etc.

To put a mark above italic characters, use:

<i class="overstrike">x<span class="up">&uml;</span></i>
<i class="overstrike">v<span class="hi">&middot;</span></i>

to produce:

, , , , etc.

For upper case italic characters, use some combination of the above, e.g., as in

<i class="overstrike">A<span class="hi">&oline;</span></i>

to produce:

• Example of logical and se-theoretical formatting, from
Suppose that φ(x,y,û) is a formula with x and y free, and let û represent variables u1,…,uk, which may or may not be free in φ. Furthermore, let φx,y,û[s,r,û] be the result of substituting s and r for x and y, respectively, in φ(x,y,û). Then every instance of the following schema is an axiom:
Replacement Schema:
u1…∀uk[∀x∃!yφ(x,y,û) → ∀wvr(rv ≡ ∃s(sw & φx,y,û[s,r,û]))]
• To produce a numerator/denominator in a mathematical expression, use:
<table style="border-spacing:0px;">
<td style="padding:0px;border-bottom:1px solid black; text-align:center;">numerator</td>

<td style="padding:0px; text-align:center;">denominator</td>

to produce

However, we may have to tweak the "padding" values to get some complex numerators/denominators, such as the following, to look good in Firefox:

Pα[h[q] | b·cn·en]
Pα[h[r] | b·cn·en]
qm (1−q)nm
rm (1−r)nm
Pα[h[q] | b]
Pα[h[r] | b]

In the above, we increased the padding for the cell for the numerator (which has a solid black border-bottom of 1px) to 4px:

<td style="padding:4px;border-bottom:1px solid black; text-align:center;">

However, if you tweak the padding in the denominator to get the following to look good in Firefox, then the long division lines will rise up above the minus sign:

(log γ)2
EQI[cn | hi/hj | hi·b] + (log ε)/n )2
• numerator/denominator with double line in between:
• To produce a large left brace for an equation given with conditions, we use a table with one row per part and construct the brace out of unicode curly-brace drawing symbols. NOTE: the brace should be in its own mini-table and needs only style="line-height:1.0":
Z(h, e|k) = 

if P(h|ek) ≥ P(h|k)
if P(h|ek) < P(h|k)
• To produce a summation or intersection with upper and lower indices, use the following table parameters:
<td align="center">
<span class="index"><em>n</em></span><br />
<font size="+2">&Pi;</font><br />
<span class="index"><em>k</em>=1</span>

to produce a large product sign with a centered index "k=1" below and a centered index "n":

Note that the index class is defined with CSS

.index { font-size:.8em; line-height: 80%; }

So, if local adjustments are needed in a particular entry, the line

<span class="index"><em>n</em></span><br />

can be replaced with the following line in which the values .8em and 80% have been altered:

<span style="font-size:.8em; line-height: 80%;"><em>n</em></span><br />

Thus, for integrals, we might use:

<td align="center"> <span class="index"> &nbsp;&nbsp; &infin;</span><br />
<font size="+2">&int;</font><br />
<span style="font-size:.8em; line-height: 100%;">0</span> </td>

to produce



or use:

<td align="center">
<span style="font-size:.8em; line-height:100%;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>x</em></span><br />
<font size="+2">&int;</font><br />
<span style="font-size:.8em; line-height: 100%;">&minus;&infin;</span>

to produce


• To produce a superscript directly above a subscript in an inline context (where you cannot use a table), use a nested pair of span tags with the superscript first, in the outer (“supsub”) span tag and the subscript after it—within the nested (“lower”) span tag. For example,
&Pi;<span class="supsub">1<span class="lower">0</span></span>



which works within the middle of a paragraph. For example, the code will be repeated within this paragraph to show the inline usage of the superscript over subscript. Here is the repeat of the code: Π10. This shows the usage of the HTML code within a paragraph.

• To produce a thinner, blacker line than the usual <hr/> tag, use:
<hr size="2" noshade="noshade" />

to produce

• To produce a border around a table without a border around each cell, use
<table style="border:1px solid black;">

to produce:

row 1, column 1row 1, column 2
row 2, column 1row 2, column 2

instead of of the default table border:

row 1, column 1row 1, column 2
row 2, column 1row 2, column 2

Additionally, to put some padding within the table border, use

<table style="border:1px solid black; border-spacing: 0.5em 1em;">

to produce:

row 1, column 1row 1, column 2
row 2, column 1row 2, column 2

Finally, to produce a border around every cell which is thinner than the default border="1", use:

<table border="1" cellspacing="0">

to produce

row 1, column 1row 1, column 2
row 2, column 1row 2, column 2
• An example for type-logical-grammar:
Γ, x : AM : B ⊸I
Γ ⊢ λx.M : AB
Γ ⊢ M : AB       Δ ⊢ N : A ⊸E
Γ, Δ ⊢ (M N) : B
• The entry on definitions needed both numbered equations and non-numbered equations with the same amount of indent. This was done by using a paragraph style to control the amount of indent and a corresponding table with 0 padding and a first column that matched the width of the indent. • The following entries have lots of useful examples:

Information for Authors

Call for Papers
The IMA Journal of Mathematical Control & Information is pleased to announce that after clearing a large backlog of good papers, the Journal is now encouraging submissions. The journal offers advance access and once accepted can be published online within 4 weeks of receipt at Oxford University Press.

Aims and Scope
The Journal is to provide an outlet for papers which are original and of high quality in mathematical control theory, systems theory, and applied information sciences. Short papers and mathematical correspondence or technical notes will be welcome, although the primary function of the journal is to publish papers of substantial length and coverage. The emphasis will be upon relevance, originality and clarify of presentation, although timeliness may well be an important feature in acceptable papers. Speculative papers that suggest new avenues for research or potential solutions to unsolved problems of control and information theory will be particularly welcome. Specific application papers will not normally be within the remit of the journal. Applications that illustrate techniques or theories will be acceptable. A prime function of the journal is to encourage the interplay between control and information theory and other mathematical sciences.

All submitted papers will be judged on their merits by at least two referees and a full paper report will be available to the intending authors. Submitted articles will in general be published in an issue within six months of submission. Papers should not have previously published, nor should they be undes consideration for publication in another journal. This Journal takes publication ethics very seriously. If misconduct is found or suspected after the manuscript is published, the journal will investigate the matter and this may result in the article subsequently being retracted.


Sarah Spurgeon OBE, FREng, FIET, FInstMC, FIMA, CEng, CMath
Professor of Control Engineering and Head of Department
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
University College London
Torrington Place
London WC1E 7JE

Nick Karcanias
Professor of Control Theory and Design
Associate Dean for Research,
School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences
Control Engineering Research Centre
City University
Northampton Square
London EC1V OHB


*Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright licence to publish form online*


Manuscripts must be submitted online. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below please visit the online submission website. Instructions on submitting your manuscript online can be viewed here.

For specific information regarding style, please refer to the IMA style guide.

When submitting papers, you will need to include the names for four potential referees.


For style information, please see the IMA Style Guide.

Each page of the manuscript should be numbered. The front page should contain the article title, author's name and affiliation, keywords, and a summary. The summary or abstract should not exceed 300 words and should be intelligible to general readers without recourse to the main text. A list of notation should be avoided, but new notation and departures from standard use should be explained in text. Avoid footnotes.

Articles should, in general, begin with an introduction which adequately covers the literature and scope of the paper. Each section in the paper should be numbered and equation numbers should be related to their own section. For example, section 2 might use:

``2. Main Results , equations numbers (2.1), (2.2) etc.'' Each article should have, in general, a conclusion or discussion section. Any appendices should follow the Reference section.

Equations should be typed wherever possible and punctuated to conform to their place in the syntax of the sentence.

The SI system of units should be used in all papers.


Figures must be submitted in the best possible quality and should allow for editing during the typesetting phase. Figures should be set within the document at their most appropriate location and not collected at the end of the document. Figure titles must be provided as text, must be separate from the figure object itself, and should immediately follow the figure. For figures produced using MS Excel, the "Chart Title" box should be empty. The use of "Gridlines" should be avoided. The use of a figure border and grey or coloured background areas should be avoided.

All figures submitted to the journal in colour will be published in colour online at no cost (unless the author specifically requests that their figures be in black and white online). Authors may choose to also publish their figures in colour in the print journal for £350 per figure: you will be asked to approve this cost in an e-mail after your article is accepted for publication. Colour figures must have a resolution of at least 300 dots per inch at their final size. Authors, who opt to publish black and white in print, should submit just one figure legend that works for both colour and grayscale. You will be issued an invoice at the time of publication.

Tables should again be positioned within the document at their most appropriate location and not collected at the end of the document. A table title should immediately proceed the table. The use of vertical dividing lines in tables should be kept to a minimum.

Table and figure titles should, within reason, be sufficiently detailed to allow the reader to understand and interpret the quantities represented therein without recourse to the main text of the manuscript.


References will be listed at the end of the main text. The Harvard system, whereby the surname of the author and year of publication of the reference are used in the text is obligatory. The list of references should be in alphabetical order of first-cited names. References by the same author(s) should be in chronological order. The normal form of listed references is author's surname, initials; year in parenthesis; article title; journal name (abbreviated in accordance with the World List of Scientific Periodicals (4th edn)); volume number (underlined); inclusive page numbers.


Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for language. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about one such service please click here. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘National Institutes of Health’, not ‘NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number xxxx]
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AA123456 to C.S., BB765432 to M.H.]; and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [hfygr667789].’

Crossref Funding Data Registry

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.


It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors assign copyright to Oxford University Press. Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

The licence form ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. In assigning copyright, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance. In consideration for assignment of copyright, the publisher will supply a URL of the paper.

Offprints may be ordered using the Oxford Journals Author Services site.

IMA authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. Authors publishing in IMA can use the following Creative Common licence for their articles:

  • Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The open access charges applicable are:

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*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

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Please see these guidelines for reuse of Oxford Open content.


Authors of accepted papers will be asked to provide the LATEX source files of the paper. In preparing the paper, please use the standard article.cls file and when sending the source file for submission, please ensure that all the macros used to write your paper accompany the manuscript. If you have any questions about the use of this file in preparing your paper, please contact:
For class files please click here

Please follow all the usual instructions to authors as detailed above, however, text width should be set to 30 picas (126 mm) and the page depth to 46 picas (195 mm). It is very important to follow the correct referencing system.


For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving page in the "About" section of the journals homepage.


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