Eco Tourism In India Assignment Abroad

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Role of Tourism Industry in India's Development

Sultan Singh Jaswal*

Department Of Commerce, Govt. College Dhaliara, Kangra, India

*Corresponding Author:
Sultan Singh Jaswal
Associate Professor
Department Of Commerce
Govt. College Dhaliar, Kangra, India
Tel: 01970-268124
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 01, 2014; Accepted Date: June 28, 2014; Published Date: July 14, 2014

Citation: Jaswal SS (2014) Role of Tourism Industry in India’s Development. J Tourism Hospit 3:126. doi: 10.4172/2167-0269.1000126

Copyright: © 2014 Jaswal SS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The tourism industry of India is economically important and grows rapidly. The World Travel & Tourism Council calculated that tourism generated INR6.4 trillion or 6.6% of the nation’s GDP in 2012. It supported 39.5 million jobs, 7.7% of its total employment. The sector is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of 7.9% from 2013 to 2023. This gives India the third rank among countries with the fastest growing tourism industries over the next decade. India has a large medical tourism sector which is expected to grow at an estimated rate of 30% annually to reach about 95 billion by 2015. This paper discusses how India is emerging as a popular tourist destination in the world, driven by the focus on innovation and creating value for tourists. It aimed change the attitude and behavior toward foreign tourists by stressing on the aspect that a guest has been held in high esteem in India since ancient times. It also examines the impact of India’s economic growth on tourism, Contributors to economic growth, Role of Tourism industry in India’s GDP, Foreign versus Domestic Tourists. The paper also explores that there has been a tremendous growth in tourism in India because of the policies of the government and support from all levels. Tourism is considered to be an economic bonanza. It is a multi-segment industry. While gauging the positive economic effects of tourism, we study its contribution to the generation of national income, expansion of employment opportunities, rising of tax revenue, generation of foreign exchange .and transformation of regional economy. Travel & Tourism is an important economic activity in most countries around the world. As well as its direct economic impact, the industry has significant indirect and induced impacts. Indian Tourism offers a potpourri of different cultures, traditions, festivals, and places of interest. There are a lot of options for the tourists. India is a country with rich cultural and traditional diversity. This aspect is even reflected in its tourism. The different parts of the country offer wide variety of interesting places to visit.

Keywords

Employment opportunities; Foreign versus domestic tourists; GDP; Tourism industry

Introduction

Throughout the world, tourism brings money to cities and countries. Tourism also provides jobs for the local residents, further benefiting the destination. India has realized the profits available from this sector. Thanks to its growing economy and promoting itself as a culturally rich and diverse nation, India’s tourism industry now brings billions of dollars into the economy each year. The growth in the tourism industry is due to the rise in the arrival of more and more foreign tourists and the increase in the number of domestic tourists.

Words are few to explain the beauty of India. India is a country with diversified culture and traditions. The natural beauty of India, festivals, dresses, heritage sites of India are very popular among tourists. These things fascinate travelers to come here. India has so many scenic blesses places like Kerala, Darjeeling, Goa, Kashmir, Shimla(I am just having few names) and Manali. These places are very popular. These places are prime attraction of travelers from across the world .There are also so many other places worth visiting ., like Delhi Kutub Minar /Agra Tajmahal/Hyderabad Charminar and Salarjung museum /Chennai a city of fine arts / Bangalore., Known as the Garden City for its lush landscape, lakes and temperate climate, it aptly represents India’s marriage of past and present,/ kerala known as god’s own country/ Kolkata was arguably second only to London in administrative importance in the British Empire. Home of luminaries like Rabindranath Tagore, Amartya Sen, Mother Teresa, and Satyajit Ray, the city is often referred to as the “cultural capital of India” etc. The Government of India has established the Ministry of Tourism in order to boost Tourism in India. The Ministry of Tourism has undertaken many projects to showcase India as a perfect Tourist destination and create a visitor-friendly image of the country. The major steps taken by the Government were the Atithi Devo Bhavah Campaign which gave a widespread message of “honour your Guest as he is always equivalent to God” and the Incredible India Campaign which was incredibly successful in creating a colorful and a gorgeous image of our country as a perfect holiday destination. Dr. K. Chiranjeevi, Hon’ble Minister for State for Tourism (IC) launched the Ministry of Tourism’s Incredible India 2013 Calendar. The attractive Calendar is based on the theme “Find What You Seek” as part of Phase II of the Incredible India campaign, which was launched during World [1].

Travel Mart (WTM), London 2012. This was mainly because of extensive Publicity Campaigns in which the IT industry played a remarkable role.

Methodology

The present study is based on the secondary data published by various agencies and organizations. The present study makes use of data and information provided by, UNWTO, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Newspapers, Magazines, Books, Economic journals and Internet etc.

Initiatives by the government for tourism promotion

Hunar se rozgar’ programme: A special initiative was launched in 200910 for the create ion of employable skills among youth belonging to economically weaker sections of the society in the age group of 18- 25 years (upper age limit raised to 28 years in November, 2010) with the basic objective to reduce the skill gap affecting the hospitality and tourism sector and to ensure the spread of economic benefit of tourism to the poor. The programme offers short duration courses of 6 to 8 weeks which are fully funded by the Ministry of Tourism

Visa on arrival: Considering the importance of Visa facilities in enhancing tourist inflow, the facility of „Long Term Tourist Visas‟ of five years duration with multiple entries, carrying a stipulation of 90 days for each visit, has been introduced on a pilot basis f or the nationals of the 18 selected countries. The findings of an evaluation study conducted by this

Ministry has reinforced the belief that the presence of the facility of “Visa on Arrival” (VoA) significantly influences the tourists'' travel plans to any country. During 2012, a total number of 16,084 VoAs (Visa on Arrival) were issued as compared to 12,761 VoAs during the corresponding period of 2011, thereby showing a growth of 26%. Efforts are on to extend the VoA facility for the nationals of more countries

Types of tourism in india

India is a country which witnesses a lot of diversity pertaining to its ecology, mythology, history, its geographical diversity in terms of mountains, planes and plateaus and also the medicinal diversity teaching us the Science of Life (Ayurveda). India showcases a variety of tourism options which includes Ecological Tourism, Pilgrimage Tourism, Historical Tourism, Adventure Tourism, Medical Tourism and an upcoming Ayurveda Tourism. So Tourism in India could be broadly classified on the basis of above mentioned categories [2]

Leisure tourism: Leisure time can be defined as “free time”, not doing any work. It is that time to do things that you normally have no time for in your daily life. Leisure tourism includes a holiday with the following:

o Relaxation: Sleep, relax, reading, walk on the beach, taking a scenic drive o Sport activities: hiking, swimming, surfing, running

o Visit places of interest and local attractions Visiting friends and relatives

o Shopping for goods that will be used by the tourist.

Business tourism: Business tourism can be defined as “travel for the purpose of business”.

Business Tourism can be divided into three sections:-

(a) Trading for goods to be resold on a wholesale basis.

(b) Conduct business transactions

eg. visiting a client, contract negotiations.

(c) Attending a conference, exhibition or event associated with their business.

Ecological tourism: The rich diversity in the flora and fauna with a blessing of the beautiful natural attractions has encouraged Ecological Tourism in India. The forests cover on the Andaman and Nicobar islands, Orissa, Meghalaya and the Malabar Coast;the Kaziranga and Jim Corbette wildlife sanctuaries;the mountain ranges in North India and the Hill Stations such as Shimla, Kulu, Manali, Ooty;the Paradise on Earth, Kashmir, the beautiful beaches at Goa and the backwaters of Kerala and much more is nothing but a feast for all nature lovers

Pilgrimage tourism: India has a very strong mythological background and is also known as the LAND OF GODS AND GODDESS. India being the most culturally developed country and the birthplace of many saints, poets and philosophers has marked growth in Pilgrimage Tourism since ancient times itself. Kedarnath, Badrinath, Amarnath, the Golden Temple at Amritsar, Dwarka, Dargahs and Masjids at Delhi and Ajmer, churches and temples at Goa are some of the common tourists’ attractions pertaining to Pilgrimage tourism [3]

Historical tourism: India is a land which gave birth to many legendary rulers and warriors creating a glorious historical background. Every city or place in India has a story to tell about its history. The common tourists’ attractions for the same include the Taj Mahal at Agra, the beautifully carved Ajanta Ellora and Khajuraho caves, the forts at Delhi, Rajasthan and Maharashtra, one of the oldest and historical cities of India “Madurai” and many more [4].

Medical tourism: Medical Tourism is an upcoming kind of tourism in India. Due to low cost and efficient medication facilities more number of people all over the world considers India to be a better option for medication purpose. The later part of the paper studies Medical Tourism.

Ayurveda and yoga tourism: Ayurveda may be regarded as the “Science of Life” which was developed long ago in 600 BC. India has witnessed an overall growth in tourist arrivals due to the upcoming; Ayurveda Tourism. The state of Kerala in South India is the popular destination of Ayurveda Tourism. The main focus of Indian Yoga is nothing but simple ‘yogasanas’and meditation which rejuvenates one’s mind, body and soul. There are many Ashrams in India encouraging Yoga Tourism. The mountain ranges of the Himalayas, Rishikesh, Kedarnath, Gangotri of northern India are some of the places where one can get eternal peace and satisfy their spiritual quest and are the prefect destinations for Yoga Tourism.

Adventure tourism: Due to its geographical diversity India is one of the finest places for Adventure Tourism. Mountaineering, skiing, trekking in the ranges of Himalayas, Camel safaris in Rajasthan, River rafting in the Ganges near Rishikesh, Rock climbing, Wind rafting and much more of an adventure for every adventure lover is bestowed by India upon its Tourists.

Sports tourism: Sports tourism refers to international travel either for viewing or participating in a sporting event. Examples include international sporting events such as the Olympics, world cup (soccer, rugby, and cricket), tennis, golf and Formula 1 Grand Prix.

Wildlife tourism: Wildlife tourism is the observation of wild (non-domestic) animals in their natural environment or in captivity. It includes activities such as photography, viewing and feeding of animals. This form of tourism offer tourists customized tour packages and safaris and is closely associated with eco-tourism and sustainable-tourism. Other minor forms of tourism include Slum tourism, Luxury tourism, Agritourism, Geo-tourism, culinary tourism and many more. Tourism is also a profitable industry for the following sectors: accommodation venues, tour guides, recreation, attractions, events and conferences, food and beverage, transportation and the travel trade.

Tourist attractions in india

India is a country known for its lavish treatment to all visitors, no matter where they come from. Its visitor-friendly traditions, varied life styles and cultural heritage and colorful fairs and festivals held abiding attractions for the tourists. The other attractions include beautiful beaches, forests and wild life and landscapes for eco-tourism; snow, river and mountain peaks for adventure tourism; technological parks and science museums for science tourism; centers of pilgrimage for spiritual tourism; heritage, trains and hotels for heritage tourism. Yoga, Ayurveda and natural health resorts and hill stations also attract tourists.

The Indian handicrafts particularly, jewelry, carpets, leather goods, ivory and brass work are the main shopping items of foreign tourists. It is estimated through survey that nearly forty per cent of the tourist expenditure on shopping is spent on such items.

Despite the economic slowdown, medical tourism in India is the fastest growing segment of tourism industry, according to the market research report “Booming Medical Tourism in India”.

The report adds that India offers a great potential in the medical tourism industry. Factors such as low cost, scale and range of treatments provided in the country add to its attractiveness as a medical tourism destination [5].

Domestic tourism flows in india

Domestic tourism continued to grow at a double-digit rate in 2012. The growth was driven by rising numbers of people travelling across the country for pilgrimage, wildlife, sightseeing, photography and adventure sports holidays. Figure 1 shows the total contribution of travel and tourism to employment. Some of the other factors also include wider economic growth of the country, rising disposable incomes, formal employment with leave entitlement etc. Domestic tourism also witnessed growth due to increased marketing efforts through television commercials, tour operators and agents of various states highlighting the best tourism experiences on offer. Domestic tourism is expected to grow at a CAGR of 11% in the forecast period in terms of number of trips. The number of holiday takers overall is expected to increase at a CAGR of 5%, boosting domestic tourism. Additionally, disposable incomes will rise, enabling locals to take more trips annually. Furthermore, the weakness of the Indian rupee against the dollar and other currencies will encourage locals to take trips within the country, where their purchasing power will be stronger. (Over 30% Indian tourists are Gujarat’s: Tourism ministry) Gujarat comes in ninth place when it comes to attracting tourists from other Indian states and it is nowhere among the top 10 with regards to foreign tourist visits. However, the state takes the top slot when it comes to travelling outside, be it within the country or to international locations, followed closely by Maharashtra. Both, Gujarat and Maharashtra are front runners for offering tourists to domestic and international circuits. Of the overall tourists from India visiting domestic as well as international destinations, nearly 30-40 per cent are from Gujarat. Considering this penchant of Guajarati’s for travel, Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi had said during his visit to West Bengal, “Gujarat was never a tourist destination, but Guajarati’s are the best tourists.” Apart from Gujarat and Maharashtra, Delhi and West Bengal send the highest number of tourists to various outside destinations. According to tourism ministry data, the number of outbound tourists from India to international destinations increased by 6.7 per cent to 14.92 million in 2012 over the previous year. The ministry data also states that the total number of domestic tourist visits in 2012 was 1.036 billion, that is to say over 1.036 billion domestic tourists travelled to different parts of the country during 2012, up from 850 million travelers in 2011 [6].

Travel and tourism’s growth

Tourism is not only a growth engine but also an employment generator. According to the Economic Survey 2011-12, the sector has the capacity to create large scale employment both direct and indirect, for diverse sections in society, from the most specialized to unskilled workforce. It provides 6-7 per cent of the world'' s total jobs directly and millions more indirectly through the multiplier effect as per the UN''s World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).

Completely skipping India because of so many incidents of rape and molestation that came to light last year,” he said. The travel companies were hoping that because of the rupee depreciation, inbound tourism would get a major boost in 2013. Figure 2 shows the Plummeting growth of Foreign Tourist Travels. However, as challenges persist, most are now pinning their hopes on 2014. “In the last one year, inbound tourism has not grown to our expectations due to sluggish economic climate in source markets. We believe this will change and Indian tour operators will reap the benefits of this revival. Another factor that will help India is the depreciation of the rupee by 12 per cent, which will boost inbound tourism in the 2014-15 seasons,” said Arup Sen, director (special projects), Cox & Kings. Figure 3 shows the decreasing trend of GDP as compared to2010-11.Foreign exchange earnings from tourism in 2013 grew 2.2 per cent to $18.1 billion, compared to a growth of seven percent in the previous years [7].

Travel and tourism’s contribution to GDP

Travel and tourism play an important role in India’s economy; compared with other nations, India ranks 14th in the world in terms of its tourism sector’s contribution to the GDP. At time of publication, the World Travel and Tourism Council predict India will sustain the fifth largest amount of growth in the tourism sector of any country. Tourism can offer direct and indirect aid to a nation’s economy. Direct benefits include economic support for hotels, retail shops, transportation services, entertainment venues and attractions, while indirect benefits include government spending on related infrastructure, plus the domestic spending of Indians employed in the tourism sector. The share of Travel & Tourism spending or employment in the equivalent economy-wide concept in the published national income accounts or labour market statistics. Table 1 shows Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP in 2014.

 India - Travel & Tourism Total  
Contribution to GDP - 6.8(% share)in
2014
YEAR Value Change,%
2014 6.8 3.03%
2013 6.6 1.54%
2012 6.5 -1.52%
2011 6.6 1.54%
2010 6.5 -2.99%
2009 6.7 -6.94%
2008 7.2 0.00%
2007 7.2 1.41%
2006 7.1 1.43%
2005 7 -19.54%
2004 8.7 -1.14%
2003 8.8

Table 1: India - Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP - 6.8(% share) in 2014.

Of India. Visitor exports are compared with exports of all goods and services Domestic Travel & Tourism spending is compared with GDP Government individual Travel & Tourism spending is compared with total government spending Internal Travel & Tourism consumption is compared with total internal consumption (i.e. total domestic spending plus total export). Table 2 shows Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP in local currency units in 2014 in India. Leisure Travel & Tourism contribution to GDP is compared with total GDP Business Travel & Tourism contribution to GDP is compared with total GDP Travel & Tourism capital investment spending is compared with all fixed investment spending [8].

YEAR Value
2014 8,488.30
2013 7,416.10
2012 6,385.10
2011 5,686.40
2010 4,768.50
2009 4,130.70
2008 4,014.10
2007 3,475.70
2006 2,953.60
2005 2,499.60
2004 2,738.80
2003 2,429.10

Table 2: India - Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP – LCU (local currency units) 8,488.3 bn in 2014.

Impacts of tourism on the economy

Tourism can bring many economic and social benefits, particularly in rural areas and developing countries, but mass tourism is also associated with negative effects. Tourism can only be sustainable if it is carefully managed so that potential negative effects on the host community and the environment are not permitted to outweigh the financial benefits. Tourism industry in India has several positive and negative impacts on the economy and society. These impacts are highlighted below [9].

Positive impacts

1. Generating Income and Employment: Tourism in India has emerged as an instrument of income and employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development. It contributes 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% of the total employment in India. Almost 20 million people are now working in the India’s tourism industry.

2. Source of Foreign Exchange Earnings: Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in India. This has favorable impact on the balance of payment of the country. The tourism industry in India generated about US$100 billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase to US$275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate.

3. Preservation of National Heritage and Environment: Tourism helps preserve several places which are of historical importance by declaring them as heritage sites. For instance, the Taj Mahal, the Qutab Minar, Ajanta and Ellora temples, etc. would have been decayed and destroyed had it not been for the efforts taken by Tourism Department to preserve them. Likewise, tourism also helps in conserving the natural habitats of many endangered species.

4. Developing Infrastructure: Tourism tends to encourage the development of multiple-use infrastructure that benefits the host community, including various means of transports, health care facilities, and sports centers, in addition to the hotels and high-end restaurants that cater to foreign visitors. The development of infrastructure has in turn induced the development of other directly productive activities.

5. Promoting Peace and Stability: Honey and Gilpin [10] suggests that the tourism industry can also help promote peace and stability in developing country like India by providing jobs, generating income, diversifying the economy, protecting the environment, and promoting cross-cultural awareness. However, key challenges like adoption of regulatory frameworks, mechanisms to reduce crime and corruption, etc, must be addressed if peace-enhancing benefits from this industry are to be realized.

Negative impacts

1. Undesirable Social and Cultural Change: Tourism sometimes led to the destruction of the social fabric of a community. The more tourists coming into a place, the more the perceived risk of that place losing its identity. A good example is Goa. From the late 60’s to the early 80’s when the Hippy culture was at its height [11], Goa was a haven for such hippies. Here they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state leading to a rise in the use of drugs, prostitution and human trafficking. This had a ripple effect on the country.

2. Increase Tension and Hostility: Tourism can increase tension, hostility, and suspicion between the tourists and the local communities when there is no respect and understanding for each other’s culture and way of life. This may further lead to violence and other crimes committed against the tourists. The recent crime committed against Russian tourist in Goa is a case in point.

3. Creating a Sense of Antipathy: Tourism brought little benefit to the local community. In most all-inclusive package tours more than 80% of travelers’ fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and workers. Moreover, large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing local farmers and workers from reaping the benefit of their presence. This has often created a sense of antipathy towards the tourists and the government.

4. Adverse Effects on Environment and Ecology: One of the most important adverse effects of tourism on the environment is increased pressure on the carrying capacity of the ecosystem in each tourist locality. Increased transport and construction activities led to large scale deforestation and destabilization of natural landforms, while increased tourist flow led to increase in solid waste dumping as well as depletion of water and fuel resources. Flow of tourists to ecologically sensitive areas resulted in destruction of rare and endangered species due to trampling, killing, disturbance of breeding habitats. Noise pollution from vehicles and public address systems, water pollution, vehicular emissions, untreated sewage, etc. also have direct effects on bio-diversity, ambient environment and general profile of tourist spots.

Results and Discussion

Environmental degradation, (Pollution) due to tourism should be taken into consideration while promoting tourism. Eco-friendly tourism should be promoted. Wildlife environment should be taken into consideration while promoting tourism. Because Wildlife viewing puts stress on animals and has changed their behavioral patterns. Noise and commotion created by tourists have adverse effect on their behavioral pattern. Litter, impact on tourism should be taken into consideration while promoting tourism. Because the most common impact of tourism is litter, and its effect is almost instant. By employing local people to help clean it up, making their lives slightly easier and more comfortable.

Aggressive advertisement campaigns on the tourist destinations should be made to attract more and more tourist. Airport procedures should be simplified. In nutshell if one wants to enjoy nature one must preserve it, otherwise all the exotic destinations will become extinct and the world will not be a beautiful place to live in. Eco friendly tourism should be promoted all over the world and if marvels of nature should be preserved, tourism should take into account the principle and process of sustainable consumption.

Conclusion

India could be a country with varied culture and traditions. The natural fantastic thing about India, festivals, dresses, heritage sites of India area unit extremely popular among tourists. Kerala, Darjeeling, Goa, Kashmir, Shimla (I am simply having few names) and Manali area unit best scenic places in India. Commercial enterprise business in India has large potential for generating employment and earning great amount of interchange besides giving a positive stimulus to the country’s overall economic and social development. Promotion of touristy ought to be done in order that commercial enterprise in India helps in protective and sustaining the variety of the India’s natural and cultural environments. commercial enterprise in India ought to be developed in such means how some way the way the simplest way} that it accommodates and entertains guests in an exceedingly way that’s minimally intrusive or harmful to the setting and sustains & supports the native cultures within the locations it’s operational in. commercial enterprise could be a multi-dimensional activity, and essentially an industry. All wings of the Central and State governments, non-public sector and voluntary organizations ought to become active partners within the endeavour to realize property growth in commercial enterprise if India is to become a world player within the commercial enterprise business.

References

  1. Jyothirmaye RS, Venkateswara RB, Durga Rao S (2012) Rural & Eco Tourism In India–Problems & Prospects Environmental Impacts On Tourism. The International Journal Of Business & Management 1: 1-5.
  2. Travel & Tourism (2013). World Travel and Tourism Council.
  3. India’s Domestic Tourists increase by 16% crossing 1 Billion Mark (2014). IANS.
  4. India Tourism Statistics at a Glance (2012). Market Research Division, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India.
  5. Top 100 Cities Destination Ranking (2013). Euromonitor International.
  6. Blanke J, Chiesa T (2013) WEF Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report: Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job Creation. World Economic Forum.
  7. Rank in Tourism (2014) Press Information Bureau , Ministry of Tourism, Government of India.
  8. https://www.incredibleindia.org/
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism
  10. Hari Srinivas (2001) Environmental impacts of tourism. United Nations Environment Programme.
  11. Ministry of Tourism, Government of India.
  12. https://www.incredibleindia.org/media-section/latest-news/1676-dr-k-chiranjeevi-launches-incredible-india-2013-calendar#sthash.UJydaK9m.dpuf

Figure 1: Plummeting growth.

Figure 2: Total contribution of travel and tourism to employment.

Figure 3: Decreasing trend of GDP as compare to 2010-11 onwards.

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Travel in India: International Advertising Programme for Promoting Multi-Dimensional Tourism in India

Irfan M1* and Yadav AK2

1Department of Business Administration, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Department of Commerce, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author:
Irfan M
Research Scholar, Department of Business Administration
DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur
Uttar Pradesh, India
Tel: 09369022036
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: February 01, 2016; Accepted Date: March 10, 2016; Published Date: March 18, 2016

Citation: Irfan M, Yadav AK (2016) ‘Travel in India’: International Advertising Programme for Promoting Multi-Dimensional Tourism in India. J Tourism Hospit 5:203. doi:10.4172/2167-0269.1000203

Copyright: © 2016 Irfan M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Tourism & Hospitality

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Abstract

Tourism activities is considered as one of the major sources of economic growth, at International level it is one of the fastest growing industries, accounting for more than 10% of total international trade and almost half of total trade in services, and can be considered as one of the world’s largest export earners (WTO, 2010). It regarded as a medium of employment generation Tourism reduces the trade deficit by generating the foreign exchange earnings from foreign tourist arrivals FTAs. It sometimes finances the import of capital goods necessary for the growth of manufacturing sectors in the economy. In many countries, foreign currency receipts from tourism exceeded currency receipts from all other sectors together. Over the past decades, the importance of the tourism sector for the economy has been steadily increasing. At International level it is recognized as a major contributor for long-run economic growth. It plays an important role in spurring investments in infrastructure and stimulates other industries by direct, indirect and induced effects. Tourism in India has shown a phenomenal growth in the past decade. But the growth was not so uniform since the promotional campaigns (Incredible India’ and ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’) focuses on tourism for holiday, recreation and leisure only hence tourism in India has confined its scope to these only but as the time is changing the tourism has evolved itself as a multi dimensional activity. In India tourism has much to offer to travellers and tourists than offering tourism for holiday and recreation only viz. 1. Medical Tourism: Medical Services in India are quiet cheaper in comparison to the developed nations, so we can take the advantage of this to promote medical tourism in order to attract more FTAs. 2. Business Tourism: As India is the fastest growing economy in the world, we can attract more people to do business here in this way promote business tourism which would result more FTAs. 3. Educational Tourism: Indian education system is known for its quality, many doctors, engineers and other professionals who have been educated in India are serving the world and have proved their worthiness. In this way by focusing on our quality education system we should promote educational tourism and attract more students of foreign nationals and consequently increasing the FTAs. Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 25 September 2014 launched the ‘Make in India’ campaign at Vigyan Bhavan in New Delhi. PM Modi has targeted 25 sectors for ‘Make in India’ programme. Among them hospitality and tourism are also included. Through, ‘Make in India’ the infrastructure a key driver of the economy highly responsible for propelling countries overall development. Would ensure time-bound creation of world class infrastructure in the country. This sector includes power, bridges, dams, roads and urban infrastructure development etc. Infrastructure of the country would be improved. There would be no dearth of accessing basic amenities, which will ultimately improve the quality of life in India. If investment in hospitality and tourism sector is made then the fertility of this investment will be proved only if we could succeed to attract more foreign tourist arrivals (FTAs) towards India. Taking the advantage of changing scenario of improvement in infrastructure and other basic amenities, we need to revitalize the promotional campaigning for promoting tourism as a multi dimensional activity Keeping in mind the above things the concept of “Travel in India” International Advertising Programme for promoting multi dimensional tourism in India is given in order to increase India’s global share in tourism by attracting more FTAs.

Keywords

Tourism; Tourist spots; Medical tourism; Eco tourism; Rural tourism; Cruise tourism

Introduction

Tourism in India

India’s rich cultural, historical and geographical diversity create its international tourism appeal large and diverse. India presents cultural, heritage and festive tourism, having potentiality in other sectors, viz., medical tourism, business tourism, educational tourism and sports tourism. The tourism industry in India is economically important and it is growing rapidly. Since the last few years, India is becoming as one of the most sought-after tourist destinations globally, as a result, offering a major boost up to the tourism of India and the revenue of the travel industry is also growing.

At the International level, India is well-known for its rich culture and tradition. Touring in India is a remarkable choice, which can make vacation memorable, inspirational and exciting. The vibrant colors of India that are a blend of modernity with tradition are going to be enthralling. One can discover the busy cities, get a sneak-peak into its rugged rural life, miracle at the divine enlightenment being offered and do much more.

With heterogeneity in its ethnicity and landscapes, a variety of sumptuous cuisine and a rich historical past a trip to India becomes a interesting cultural experience for any tourist who offers a treat to the sanity. One can explore the India history by visiting its palaces and forts, discover the attractions of the renowned cities, trip the Goa beaches, Kerala’s backwaters, hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh and East, interrelate with the wildlife in their natural surroundings, enjoy the fairs and festivals, partaking in adventure activities, get a divine experience, catch the nightlife or more. Few of the most well-known destinations spread all around the landscape of India include names like Agra, Jaipur, Delhi, Mumbai, Gujarat, Kerala, Goa, Manali, Shimla, Darjeeling, and more. Tourist spots at neighboring countries, includes Maldives, Tibet, Mansarovar and Nepal.

The Ministry of Tourism (Govt. of India) designs the national policies for the development and promotion of tourism in India. In this process the Ministry consults and work together with other stakeholders in the sector including various Central agencies/Ministries, Union Territories, state governments, and the representatives of the private sectors. Intensive efforts are being made to encourage new forms of tourism like medical tourism, eco tourism, rural tourism, cruise tourism etc. The Ministry also maintained the Incredible India campaign.

Travel and tourism sector has the large share of service industry in India which ultimately is the largest constituent of the Indian GDP. It provides medical, cultural, heritage, sports and business tourism. The prime goal of this segment is to develop and encourage tourism, sustain competitiveness of India as tourist destination and develop and expand existing tourism products to ensure economic growth and employment creation.

Prefatorily statistics

Area of India is 3.28 million square kms, lying entirely in the northern hemisphere. The mainland extends between latitudes 8°4’ and 37°6’ north and longitudes 68°7’ and 97°25’ east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline is approximately 7,516 km. Real Gross Domestic Product was $ 1,012.0 billion in FY 2013; GDP growth rate (CAGR) was 7.2 percent in FY 2008-13. Gross National Income was $ 1,002 billion in FY 2013; real per capita net national income was $ 7205 in FY 2013. In 2012 tourism generated 6.4 trillion or 6.6% of the country’s GDP. This supported 39.5 million jobs, 7.7% of its total employment. India has also a large medical tourism sector, which is expected to rise at an approximate rate of 30% yearly to reach about 95 billion by 2015.

According to provisional statistics, in 2011, 6.29 million foreign tourists arrived in India, an increase of 8.9% from 5.78 million in 2010. This placed India on the 38th rank in the world in terms of FTAs (foreign tourist arrivals). In 2012 the Domestic tourist visits to all states and Union Territories numbered 1,036.35 million, an increase of 16.5% from 2011. The countries from where the FTAs are higher are the US (16%) and the UK (12.6%). Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Delhi were the most popular states for foreign tourists in 2011. Domestic tourists most frequently visited the states Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. During the year 2011 Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai and Agra have been the top four most visited cities of India by foreign tourists. Globally, Chennai is ranked 41 by the number of foreign tourists, while Delhi is ranked at 50; Mumbai is ranked at 57 and Agra is ranked at 65 and Kolkata is ranked at 99.

According to travel and tourism competitiveness report 2013, out of 144 countries India was ranked at 65th position. The report ranks the Indian tourism sector’s price competitiveness out of 144 countries at 20th position. It states that India has pretty good air transport (ranked 39th), predominantly given the country’s stage of development, and sound ground transport infrastructure (ranked 42nd). Instead some other important parts of its tourism infrastructure remain somewhat less developed. The country has very less hotel rooms per capita by global comparison and low ATM density. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) has reported that India’s tourism receipts during 2012 ranked 16th in the world and 7th among the Asian and Pacific countries.

The sector is expected to grow at an average annual growth rate of 7.9% from 2013-2023. This will secure third rank for India among the countries with the fastest rising tourism industries over the next decade.

Literature Retrospection

Tourism is one of the most important economic activities for many countries and regions around the word, particularly in those countries and regions characterized by a strong economic dependence on tourism. Knowing the true dynamics of tourism demand is of crucial importance to managers of diverse business to adopt adequate entrepreneurial policies and strategies and for policymakers to plan required tourism infrastructures, formulate appropriate strategies and anticipate economic and unemployment problems [1]. On the average, tourism-specialized countries grow more than others [2]. The relationshipbetween the tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings from tourism is not a function of the number of the tourist visiting a tourist destination but it depends on the spending patterns of foreign tourists [3]. The Tourist expenditure can give an injection of ‘ new money’ into the economy, Nevertheless tourism research has generally taken a reductionist approach, with tourism not effectively understood as a complex phenomenon [4]. Tourism supply chain, tourism attractions, local communities, and governments are the main factors involved in the provision of sustainable tourism. Each tourism attraction has to be concerned to the carrying capacity of an area, tourism activities without degrading the environment, culture, and the interactive harmony among sectors of the economy, group of people, and individuals [5]. In addition, tourism attractions should play a big role in tourist education, which may come in forms of environmental education and developing sustainable tourist behaviours [6]. In terms of local participation, in principle, the tourism industry creates high levels of income generation and distribution. The multiplier effect, which means that tourism, creates job and investment opportunities for the local communities; it means that the goods and services that are offered to the tourists are produced locally and are not imported [7]. In the scenario of globalization, competition among global players of tourism related service industries are unavoidable and the global village concept has considerably increased the expectation of the people from all spheres. In such a situation only organisations capable of creating a competitive edge can continue their achievement [8]. India has a varied range of niche tourism productslike medical, education, eco-tourism, cruises, adventure, wellness, sports, MICE, film, rural and spiritual tourism. Three-fourths of the overall Indian tourism economy comes from domestic tourism. The UNWTO has forecasted that the tourism and travel industry in India would grow by 8% per year from 2008- 2016. And Foreign exchange earnings (FEE) from tourism are expected to show annual growth of 14% in the same period.

Genesis of the Problem

When Prime Minister Narendra Modi had launched this ‘Make in India’ campaign at Vigyan Bhavan in New Delhi on 25 September 2014, most of us might have thought that ‘Make in India’ initiative will emphasis manufacturing sectors only, but when we contemplated much over this we found that it is going to have a great effect on the other sectors of Indian economy also. The other sectors which are going to be affected include service, health etc...

PM has targeted 25 sectors for the ‘Make in India’ programme. Hospitality and tourism is also among them, with ‘Make in India’ the infrastructure of the country would be improved. There would be no dearth of accessing basic amenities, which will ultimately improve the quality of life in India. But the infrastructure development and direct investment in hospitality and tourism sector will be proved fruitful, only if we could succeed to attract more foreign tourist arrivals (FTAs) in India.

On the other side the old ‘Incredible India’ and ‘Atithi devo bhava’, campaigns were only focusing the tourism based on leisure, holiday and recreation, but today tourism has very broad spectrum varying from business and professional, visiting friends and relatives, pilgrimage to medical and educational tourism.

Indian tourism industry currently facing the following problems:

1. India’s share in world tourism industry is very low (less than one percent).

2. Recently Delhi gang rape incident has severely damaged India’s image.

3. Every tourism campaign is focussing on cultural and historical tourism only while India has many reasons to visit.

Travel in India campaign will be an advertising campaign for promoting multi dimensional tourism which will include holiday and recreation, medical tourism, religious tourism, business tourism, adventure tourism, education tourism, festive tourism etc.

Objectives of the Study

The study has done with the following objectives:

1. To promote multi dimensional tourism in India.

2. To increase India’s share in international tourist arrival.

3. To ask the world, India has much to visit than only for holiday and recreation.

4. To make an international advertising programme so that could promote all aspects of tourism.

Importance of the Study

Tourism provides government with millions of dollars in tax revenues each year through accommodation rents, restaurant taxes, sales taxes and many other fiscal measures, India is much below the world average in tapping the benefits of tourism. The industry with low capital investment and correspondingly high labour involvement can be an effective solution for the unemployment issues facing the developing countries like India. Hence planned approach for promoting multi dimensional travel and tourism has become an urgent requirement for national development.

Methodology of the Study

Keeping the objectives in account the study is concentrated on the descriptive analysis of the fact, figure and data obtained through secondary sources from the various reports, journals, news papers etc. and wide range of sources from tourism development agencies and hotels. Since the study is based upon secondary data hence the findings have its own limitations.

Data Analysis

Analysis and interpretation of data were carried out in terms of quantity aspects with the help of appropriate financial tool, in this study management technique like trend analysis is used and reports of more than 5 years obtained from websites of government agencies were analyzed.

Tourism-Need of Time

The travel and tourism industry has emerged as one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors globally [9-15]. According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), tourism’s total contribution to worldwide GDP is estimated at 9 percent. Asia Pacific recorded the highest growth in the number of international tourist arrivals in 2012 at 7 percent (Tourism Highlights 2013). Tourism provides government with millions of dollars in tax revenues each year through accommodation rents, restaurant taxes, sales taxes and many other fiscal measures.

International tourist arrivals are set to increase at a growth rate of 3.3 percent per annum and amount to approximately 1.4 billion by 2020 and 1.8 billion by 2030 implying an increase of 43 million international tourist arrivals each year (Figure 1).

While international tourist’s arrivals in Europe and America are expected to witness modest growth rates of 2.5 per cent and 2.2 percent respectively by 2030, Africa and Asia Pacific regions are expected to witness higher growth rates at 5.7 percent and 5.0 percent per annum during the same period.

The global travel and tourism industry is expected to witness certain key trends:

1. Increased inter region travel and hence increased air travel

2. Arrivals for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives, health, religion, etc., are expected to witness faster growth than those for business and professional purposes.

Indian Tourism Industry

India is much below the world average in tapping the benefits of tourism. The industry with low capital investment and correspondingly high labour involvement can be an effective solution for the unemployment issues facing the developing countries like India.

There is a need to develop and promote tourism, maintain competitiveness of India as tourist destination and improve and expand existing tourism products to ensure employment generation and economic growth. Hence, planned approach for multi-dimensional travel and tourism has become a need of time.

The Indian tourism industry contributes approximately 5.9 percent of the country’s GDP and it gives employment opportunities to around 41.8 million of inhabitants. It has contributed very much in the promising chart of India’s economy by attracting a large number of both domestic and foreign tourists travelling for professional as well as holiday purpose. In 2006, it witnessed an awesome growth. The increase in the inflows in Indian tourism industry is calculated together in terms of vacations and in terms of business.

As it has been stated by UNWTO in the year 2006, the figure of foreign tourists arrival from all over the world grown from 0.37% to 0.53%. This significant increase in the graph of Indian tourism industry has popularized the whole South Asia as one of the most magnificent tourist terminal.

However, when we look at the list of top 10 countries of the world in terms of international tourist arrivals, India stands nowhere. According to India tourism statistics at a glance 2013, India’s share in the world for International tourist arrivals is merely 0.67%, which is quiet discouraging for a country that is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area and second largest country in terms of population.

Performance of Indian Tourism Industry

The process of economic reforms introduced decades ago has had its own impact. In India, new dimensions have been added to the leisure sector with the emergence of resorts and heritage hotels. The economic impact that would accrue because of implementation of the new plan in tourism can be categorized as direct, indirect and incidental. The direct benefits are taken as the net value addition associated with increased tourist the various sectors that received them and subsequently applying appropriate ratios of net-value added for each sector unchanged for the direction of the perspective tourism plan. The money spent by tourist will be received by different segments of the industry, which provide the various services and facilities (Figures 2 and 3).

The government of India has increased its allocation of Rs 2,900 crores for tourism development during the 10th plan period. India is creating a congenial atmosphere for various sectors have been increasing its earnings considerably. Indian tourism sector attracts more people every year to get maximum foreign exchange earnings. If everything goes well and special emphasis were given on promoting multi-dimensional tourism then Indian tourism would become global leader and will attract more people per year. The following Tables 1-4, as well as, Figures 1 and 2 presents some information regarding the performance of Indian tourism scenario.

YearForeign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) from Tourism in IndiaPercentage shareForeign Exchange Earning form Tourism In India
20022.38-3.03103
20032.7343.84463
20043.4638.26170
20053.9221.47493
20064.4515.28634
20075.0824.310729
20085.2810.311832
20095.17-5.911136
20105.7827.514193
20116.3116.716564
20126.587.117737

Table 1: Foreign exchange earnings (FEE) from tourism in India, 2002-2012 (In US$ Million). Source: India tourism statistics at a glance [13].

YearFTAs(Numbers)Business and ProfessionalLeisure, Holiday and RecreationVisiting Friends and RelativesMedical TreatmentOthers
2009516769915.157.517.62.27.6
2010577569218.624.027.52.727.2
2011630922222.526.024.92.224.3
2012657774522.527.127.22.620.6

Table 2: Foreign tourist arrivals (FTAs) in India according to purpose of visit (2009-2012). Source: India tourism statistic [12].

RegionFTAs (Numbers)Business and ProfessionalLeisure, Holiday and RecreationVisiting Friends andRelativesMedical and TreatmentOthers
North America129596818.716.946.30.317.8
Central and South America6369933.035.013.50.318.3
Western Europe185306627.130.725.90.416.0
Eastern Europe31268625.440.78.71.923.2
Africa26142822.627.816.08.525.1
West Asia29099615.530.513.18.432.5
South Asia117149912.630.821.19.326.3
South East Asia54091418.636.124.40.620.2
East Asia53562257.521.45.40.115.6
Australasia24451118.425.442.00.413.9

Table 3: Classification of FTAs in world according to purpose of visit (in 2012). Source: India tourism statistics [12].

RankCountryInternational TouristArrivals (P) (in millions)Percentage Share %
1FranceNANA
2USA69.86.74
3Spain60.75.86
4China55.75.38
5Italy47.74.61
6Turkey37.83.65
7Germany31.53.04
8UK31.23.01
9Russian Federation28.42.74
10Thailand26.52.56
Total of Top 10 Countries389.337.59
India#6.970.67
Others638.761.74
Totals1035.0 100.00
(P): Provisional, N.A.: Not Available,# excludes nationals of the country residing abroad.

Table 4: Share of Top 10 countries of the world and India in international tourist arrivals (in 2013).

International Tourism Advertising

According to Wikipedia, international tourism advertising programme is tourism related marketing on the part of private or public entities which are directed towards the audiences abroad and may target prospective travellers and non-travellers alike [16].

Advertisers share the intentional objective of growing their own revenue by popularizing the services rendered by them (e.g. hotel chain or airline) or destinations to increase receipts from travellers, however, some travel advertisements might have additional or alternative objectives like promoting good public sentiments or convalescing existing sentiment towards them among the projected audience. Travel agencies, hotel chains, cruise agencies frequently run their own advertising campaign to market their subsistence, mission, or services offered to the end user, and these advertisements do not carry intentional political messages.

Sometimes states may use the marketing of products or services itself as a medium of communicating a specific message without clearly stating the message, this approach is frequently used to soften the implied message itself and thus allowing the advertiser to avoid or minimize controversy and/or opposition.

Advertising distributed by governments themselves, with the help of tourism ministries or government owned public or private sector enterprises, is sometimes projected to convey more than simply the significance of the product, service and experience. since the government can use tourism advertisements as a medium for communicating directly to the public of the other nations, because tourism is the most common and internationally recognized industry and the advertising of it will be the subject of less content regulation.

Advertisement efforts on the part of the big players in this market are also increasing. Advertising campaign to promote travel to destination abroad is particularly prevalent in western parts of the world where the general public’s tourism expenditures is tend to be consistently high, even in the time when they are facing economic recession.

According to Wikipedia Tourism advertising can take many forms, and can utilize a wide array of advertising strategy, and can be driven by a range of public or private intents.

A great degree of advertisements which promote their own country are created and disseminated by the tourism ministries of various countries, so these advertisements are often considered as vehicles for political statements and/or depictions of the destination country’s desired foreign public perceptions. Destination advertising could be the example of government-produced tourism as the destination advertising also serves political or social functions. Destination advertising is designed in order to make a place itself seem more attractive, while travel services advertising seeks to increase an audience’s buy-in for the tourism linked products or services. Sometimes international tourism advertising overlaps with states economic, political, and/or social interests.

Need of a Novel International Advertising Programme

Though, the Incredible India campaigns have generated a positive image of India as a must see and interesting destination. The myths with respect to India in some cases have not been addressed although the ads make an appealing persuasive impact to visit India. Both the Incredible India and Athiti Devo Bhava campaign has limited its scope to promote heritage, cultural, festive, adventure tourism for leisure, holiday and recreation purpose, while there are other sectors also which have great potential and yet not have been recognized as potential source for promoting tourism, e.g. medical tourism, educational tourism, social activity tourism etc.

In today’s economy the travel and tourism sector is considered as one of the largest and most dynamic industry, the UNWTO is expecting the sector‘s global economy by 2019 to provide 296 million jobs. While international tourist arrivals in Europe and America are expected to witness modest growth rates of 2.5% and 2.2% respectively by 2030, Africa and Asia Pacific regions are expected to witness higher growth rates at 5.7% and 5.0% per annum during the same period.

Therefore, from the above statistics it is clear that a great future is lying ahead and we need to promote, multi-dimensional tourism to attract more FTAs in India and having different purposes to visit and make India pioneer in tourism. Therefore, a fresh international advertising programme, ‘Travel in India’, for promoting multidimensional tourism in India, is required.

Developing Tourism as a Multi-Dimensional Activity

The efforts should be taken to make tourism as India’s key political and economic agenda taking all union territory administrations, state governments and stakeholders on board and establish India as round the year tourist destination. Our centre of attention should be to further develop and promote niche products like medical tourism, rural tourism, wellness and, cruise tourism, sports tourism, wildlife and adventure tourism, film tourism, and MICE tourism. Development of thriving multidimensional tourism programme will require following efforts by government as well:

1. The Government should try to establish an effective coordination and linkages among the policies and programs of the all concerned departments/ agencies by establishing effective coordination mechanisms at various levels of Centre, States and Districts. Hence The focus of national policy should also be to develop tourism as a common effort of all the agencies significantly concerned with it at the Central and State levels, private sector and the public sector undertakings.

2. It should be the policy of government to promote people’s involvement in development of tourism including non-governmental organisations (NGOs), local bodies, Panchayati Raj institutions, cooperatives, and enterprising local youth to create awareness among public in order to get a wider reach of tourist amenities. Though persistent attention should be given to the integrated development of recognized centres with well focussed public involvement.

3. A positive and equally favourable partnership between the private and the public sector enterprise through all feasible means is the prime need for the persistent development of tourism. It is therefore should be the policy of the Government to support emergence of such partnerships. This could be achieved by forming a Tourism Development Authority constituent of this should include senior officials from the Government department, tourism experts and professionals from the private sectors.

4. As the tourism is a multi-dimensional activity and the industry have the influence of many other sectors of the nation’s economy. Therefore the State has to ensure the inter-governmental coordination and linkages. It also has to play a central role in tourism management and marketing. The precise roles of the Government should be the following :

i. To offer basic infrastructural facilities together with local planning and zoning arrangements.

ii. To plan the development of tourism as a part of the overall area development policy.

iii. To create core infrastructure in the initial stages of the development in order to reveal the potential of the area.

iv. To provide the requisite support facilities and incentives to both foreign and domestic investors to promote private investment in the tourism sector.

v. To rationalise levy and land policy in the tourism segment in every States and Union Territories also with the respect of the land owned by Government agencies e.g. Railways etc.

vi. To introduce regulatory agency in order to make sure the cultural, social and ecological sustainability as well as security and safety of the domestic and foreign tourists.

vii. To make sure that the form and size of tourism development is compatible with the socio-cultural milieu and environment of the area.

viii. To make sure that the local society has the full involvement and the rewards of tourism accrue to them.

ix. To make easy the availability of skilled manpower primarily from amongst the local community jointly with the industry.

x. To carry out research, prepare master plans, and aid the formulation of promotional tactics.

xi. To organise overseas promotional campaigns and marketing jointly with the industry.

xii. To initiate definite measures to make sure the safety and security of tourists and proficient facilitation services.

xiii. To make possible the growth of a dynamic tourism sector.

Promoting Multi-Dimensional Tourism through International Advertising Programmes

Tourism is becoming an extremely rewarding and growing global industry so there is no surprise that a developing nation ‘India’ is striving hard to capitalize on that market to improve its economy. Further India is also trying to reinforce its diplomatic ties and international security while expanding and deepening its trade relationships, so it is in India’s favour to promote a positive image of itself among the foreigners and foreign nations in order to get future international support and aid.

The common impression of India in the eyes West has long been either negative together with perceptions of extensive poverty, shortage of sophisticated sanitation and violent ethnic and religious clashes, so the Ministry of Tourism under the government of India has began a marketing campaign called, ‘Incredible India,’ to put emphasis on the country’s historical sites, rich culture, tourist magnetisms, and general sense of enthusiasm and dynamism to western audiences. The ‘Incredible India’ was conceived in 2002, by V Sunil (during the period when he was Creative Director, O&M Delhi), and Amitabh Kant, the Joint Secretary, Ministry of Tourism govt. of India.

The primary goal of this trademark exercise was to create a distinguishing identity for the country. The resultant of this was the iconic ‘Incredible India’ logo, and the exclamation mark that formed the ‘I’ of India was used to put a great impact across all communications. The campaign established India successfully as a high-end tourist destination, and generated a 16% increase in tourist traffic in the initial year.

The success of ‘Incredible India’ campaign Enthused for ‘India Now’ which was another campaign designed for three months to showcase India’s ever-evolving culture and accelerating economy. India now was organized between July and September 2007 at London and featured activities, events and festivals across the capital which was dedicated to Indian food, art, film, theatre, music and fashion, taxis and buses plying along the main routes of London wore vibrant Incredible India messages and colours as a part of this campaign. Approximately one million Londoners and visitors to London have participated in these activities. This was resulted as a jump in inbound tourism to 16% from the UK.

India Tourism had launched two more international campaign called ‘Find What You Seek’ and a domestic campaign called ‘Go Beyond’. These campaigns where launched at the World Travel Market-2012, held at London. The emergence of such campaigns shows an important paradigm shift in tactics to promote India within the country and out of the country. The ‘Go Beyond’ campaign is focused on promoting lesser known tourist destinations to domestic as well as international tourists.

Promoting ‘Travel in India’ International Advertising Programme

Advertising and sales promotion is the process that bridges the gap between production and consumption. Tourism as an industry has flourished in the last few years. Advertising can be given credit for the growth of ‘tourism industry’. Destinations like Venice, Paris, Switzerland, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and many more have become popular amongst tourists through advertisements.

International advertising programme helps to gain control over international development without such a programme we would have less influence over where to guide our international expansion and with whom we are negotiating. A successful international advertising program will generate quality leads in the markets, which make most sense for our business.

Prepare the list of favourable countries

Not every country or regions might be the appropriate destination for all purposes. As every country has its own challenges, which can make it more difficult to solve our purposes. Therefore, in first step we need to focus only on those countries from where FTAs is higher.

Direct advertising: Direct advertising would probably be more effective to convey our message to the targeted audience. In such a way, repetition of the message through print and electronic media would generate greater number of response.

Online advertising: As today, the world is rapidly becoming techsavvy; therefore, online advertising could be the cheapest medium of conveying our message in detail.

Virtual tourism: India has become the first country in the world to give free walking tours. At present, it is available for six towns. Every Indian state would have one walking tour. So far this type of promotion has confined itself to cultural, heritage and festive tourism only, should be expanded to other sectors also.

Road shows for the cause

Conducting the road shows with a noble cause; which must have a direct concern towards the objectives, where the road show is being conducted.

Information about the diversity and richness of Indian culture and heritage

The food and cultural heritage of different parts of India should be targeted while giving information on the diversity and richness of Indian culture and heritage.

Google travel planer

Google has developed a travel planner for almost 200 odd Indian tourist destinations. India is the first country in the world to have such travel planner. By just clicking a few key details one can get several pictures, video, 360° views and other appropriate information about that specific place. Google has also made a picture bank of more than 2,000 pictures about India. We must tell the world that we are pioneer in this.

Image building of the nation

Some incident like ‘Nirbhaya Case’ (that transmitted that the city is very unsafe for women) have severely damaged India’s image worldwide and distracted tourists from coming to India and left a strong repercussion over the tourism industry. This can be overcome by rebuilding the image of the nation and assuring safety of every tourist who visits India.

Promoting tourism in diversified areas

India should promote tourism in new areas, e.g., cultural, heritage, festive tourism, etc. While a vast country like India has much to attract, viz., medical tourism, business tourism, educational tourism, etc.

National online feedback system

We must develop a national online feedback system in order to receive feedback about service, security and experiences from tourists who have visited India. This would support us for making India excellent tourist destiny.

Collaborating with the agencies of other nations

We can have collaborations with the agencies of different nations in order to promote our tourism in our nation.

Findings

During the study on such crucial subject we observed some issues which will advocate in favour of this campaign these issues are discussed point wise below:

1. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area but its global share in international tourist arrival is less than 1%.

2. Incredible India and other promotional campaign have done their job of promoting India as a tourist destination for holiday and excursion very well and now we need to promote tourism more than just for holiday and excursion.

3. India is the fastest growing economy in the world and increasing the number of foreign tourist arrivals is crucial to sustain this growth.

Managerial implications

The success of this advertising campaign will depend upon the effective managerial execution, Therefore for encouraging multidimensional tourism in India through Travel in India’ International advertising program certain things need to consider-

1. At initial stage priority should be given to those countries from where foreign tourist arrival in India is high.

2. The whole campaign should be in segmented form e.g. if we find that country (X) has the potential for promoting educational tourism then prime objective should be to encourage educational tourism in country (X).

3. Yielding of such campaign could take time hence great patience is needed.

4. In order to compete globally we can’t rely on one or two sectors and therefore a very balanced approach is needed. So the concerned government body should consider the idea of “Travel in India” International advertising Programme for promoting tourism as a multi dimensional activity.

Conclusion

From the facts and figure given above it is clear that the tourism with the purpose of health, religion, education etc., are expected to witness faster growth than those for leisure, holiday and recreation, business and professional purposes.

More than 65% of FTAs in India come for Leisure, Holiday, Recreation, business and professional, and the sectors which are expected to see faster growth constitute nearly 10% of total FTAs.

Therefore, it can be said that travel and tourism sector in India still rely on conventional tourism e.g. heritage, cultural and festive tourism and this is the reason why different areas of the tourism has not much grown so far. Promoting multi-dimensional tourism in India can lead increase in number of FTAs in India and provide key strength to the industry as well as economy. The ‘Travel in India’ International advertising campaign can attract more tourist to India, through a strong crusading implications and will develop India as a better tourist destination on world map.

References

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Figure 1: International tourist arrivals (inmillions).

Figure 2: Percentage share of top 10 countries and india in international tourist arrivals (in 2013).

Figure 3: Trend graph of FTAS in India with purpose of visits (2009-2012).

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